Electoral system in India has been the cornerstone of its vibrant democracy, facilitating the largest democratic exercise in the world. Over the years, the country has undergone significant changes in its electoral landscape, with several reforms implemented to address challenges and ensure the fairness, transparency, and inclusivity of the electoral process. This study critically analyzes the impact of these electoral reforms on the Indian political scenario.

The research employs a multifaceted approach, incorporating both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It assesses the implications of key electoral reforms such as the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs), the implementation of the Representation of the People Act, 1950, and the incorporation of the Election Commission’s guidelines for campaign financing and expenditure. Furthermore, it examines the consequences of amendments aimed at enhancing the representation of marginalized communities, including women, minorities, and disadvantaged groups.

Through an extensive review of electoral data, case studies, and expert interviews, this study highlights the transformations brought about by these reforms in terms of voter participation, political accountability, and the overall democratic governance framework. It also delves into the challenges and shortcomings encountered during the implementation of these reforms, providing valuable insights into the areas that require further attention and improvement.

The findings of this research contribute to a nuanced understanding of the impact of electoral reforms on the Indian democratic process. They underscore the significance of continuous evolution and adaptation in electoral mechanisms to uphold the principles of fairness, equity, and integrity in the electoral process. The study’s conclusions aim to provide policymakers, electoral authorities, and stakeholders with actionable recommendations for the further strengthening of India’s electoral system, fostering a more robust and participatory democratic culture.


India, known for its vibrant democracy, has witnessed several significant electoral reforms that have shaped its political landscape. These reforms have been instrumental in ensuring the fairness, transparency, and inclusivity of the electoral process, thereby reinforcing the democratic ideals enshrined in the Indian Constitution. From the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) to the implementation of crucial legislative amendments, India’s electoral reforms have aimed to streamline the electoral process and enhance political representation.

One of the landmark changes was the introduction of EVMs, which revolutionized the voting system by replacing traditional paper ballots. This technological advancement not only expedited the voting process but also reduced the likelihood of electoral malpractices, fostering greater trust in the electoral system. Additionally, the amendments made to the Representation of the People Act, 1950, and subsequent modifications have been instrumental in ensuring the participation of marginalized groups, including women and minorities, in the political arena.

Despite these significant strides, challenges persist, including issues related to campaign financing, political corruption, and the effective implementation of electoral regulations. Furthermore, concerns regarding the representation of marginalized communities and the equitable distribution of political power remain pertinent in the discourse on electoral reforms.

This study endeavors to critically analyze the impact of these electoral reforms on India’s democratic framework, shedding light on their implications for voter participation, political accountability, and governance. By examining the successes, shortcomings, and challenges associated with electoral reforms, this research aims to provide actionable recommendations for the continued strengthening of India’s electoral system, fostering a more robust and participatory democratic culture.


Electoral reforms in India have significantly shaped the nation’s democratic framework, ensuring equitable representation and upholding principles of transparency and accountability. India has implemented a range of changes to its electoral process, including the adoption of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) in the 1990s, replacing traditional paper ballots and expediting the vote counting process. This transition has bolstered the credibility of election outcomes by minimizing the risks of tampering and booth capturing. Nonetheless, concerns persist regarding the security and vulnerability of these machines, prompting calls for enhanced technological safeguards.

Simultaneously, amendments to the Representation of the People Act, 1950, have facilitated greater political participation among marginalized groups, with reserved quotas for women in local governance and for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in parliamentary and state assemblies. These initiatives have empowered historically marginalized communities, fostering a more inclusive political landscape.

Nevertheless, challenges persist within the Indian electoral system, including issues related to campaign finance transparency, political corruption, and the undue influence of wealth in elections. While efforts have been made to regulate campaign expenditure and financing through the Election Commission’s guidelines, implementation challenges persist, necessitating a more robust regulatory framework.

Effective enforcement of electoral regulations remains an ongoing challenge due to enforcement gaps, limited monitoring mechanisms, and bureaucratic obstacles. Strengthening regulatory mechanisms, enhancing the capacity of electoral institutions, and ensuring the independence of the Election Commission are crucial for the comprehensive enforcement of electoral laws.

Despite reservation quotas, meaningful inclusion of marginalized communities in decision-making processes encounters social barriers, limited political empowerment, and restricted access to resources. Addressing these challenges requires multifaceted approaches, including targeted socio-economic interventions, educational empowerment, and proactive measures to dismantle systemic barriers hindering the political mobilization of marginalized groups.

In summary, India’s electoral reforms have led to significant strides in fortifying the democratic process and fostering inclusive political participation. Despite positive outcomes from initiatives such as the introduction of EVMs and legislative amendments for inclusive representation, challenges remain in ensuring campaign finance transparency, effective implementation of electoral regulations, and equitable political participation.

Tackling these challenges demands collaborative efforts from policymakers, electoral authorities, civil society, and other stakeholders to strengthen the integrity and inclusiveness of India’s electoral system. Emphasizing transparency, accountability, and equitable political representation is vital for nurturing a resilient democratic culture aligned with the tenets of the Indian Constitution.[1]


India’s electoral reforms have undergone a significant historical evolution, shaped by the country’s journey from its colonial past to its emergence as the world’s largest democracy. The evolution of electoral reforms can be traced back to the pre-independence era when the Indian National Congress and other nationalist movements advocated for greater political representation and autonomy. The demand for a democratic electoral system gained momentum, eventually leading to the enactment of the Government of India Act, 1935, which laid the groundwork for a limited representative assembly.

Following India’s independence in 1947, the drafting of the Indian Constitution marked a crucial turning point in the country’s electoral history. The Constitution enshrined the principles of universal suffrage, political equality, and the establishment of a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. The adoption of a parliamentary system, coupled with the integration of fundamental rights and directives for inclusive governance, laid the foundation for India’s modern electoral framework.

In the early years post-independence, India witnessed several electoral reforms aimed at ensuring political representation and strengthening democratic institutions. The First General Elections in 1951-52 marked a significant milestone, wherein the Election Commission of India, established in 1950, successfully conducted the world’s largest democratic exercise, with over 176 million eligible voters. The seamless execution of these elections set a precedent for subsequent electoral reforms and reinforced India’s commitment to democratic governance.

Subsequently, the 1980s and 1990s witnessed a series of pivotal electoral reforms, including the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) in the electoral process. The adoption of EVMs revolutionized the voting system, streamlining the voting process and enhancing the efficiency of the electoral machinery. This technological advancement significantly reduced the scope for electoral malpractices, bolstering the credibility and transparency of the electoral process.

Furthermore, legislative amendments were implemented to address historical disparities and promote inclusive political representation. The 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in 1992 marked a watershed moment, establishing a framework for decentralized governance through the establishment of Panchayati Raj institutions and urban local bodies. These amendments facilitated the reservation of seats for women and marginalized communities, empowering them to actively participate in local decision-making processes.

Despite these reforms, challenges persist, including issues related to campaign financing, political corruption, and the effective enforcement of electoral regulations. Efforts to regulate campaign expenditure and financing, although initiated through the Election Commission’s guidelines, have encountered implementation challenges, necessitating a more robust regulatory framework to curb the undue influence of money in politics.

In conclusion, India’s historical evolution of electoral reforms reflects the nation’s commitment to fostering an inclusive and participatory democratic process. The journey from the pre-independence struggle for political representation to the contemporary initiatives aimed at strengthening electoral integrity underscores India’s relentless pursuit of democratic ideals and governance excellence. As India continues to evolve, the focus remains on addressing the persistent challenges within the electoral system, ensuring the transparency, fairness, and inclusivity of the democratic process for all citizens.[2]


The consequences of electoral reforms in India have been crucial in ensuring the implementation of impartial and just elections, thereby strengthening the fundamental pillars of a resilient democratic structure. These reforms have significantly contributed to fostering transparency, inclusiveness, and honesty within the electoral process, thereby upholding the fundamental principles of democratic governance.

One of the most impactful changes has been the introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs). EVMs have transformed the voting procedure, lessening the possibility of electoral malpractices like booth capturing and tampering of ballots. Their application has streamlined the voting and counting methods, ensuring the rapid and precise calculation of votes, thereby reinforcing public confidence in the legitimacy and openness of election results.

Furthermore, reforms pertaining to campaign financing have sought to reduce the unwarranted influence of monetary power in politics. The regulations set forth by the Election Commission regarding the monitoring of expenses and public disclosures have aimed to create an equal platform for all candidates, irrespective of their financial resources. By enforcing limitations and guidelines on campaign spending, these reforms have mitigated the disparities resulting from unequal financial support, allowing candidates to compete based on the substance of their ideas and policies rather than their financial capabilities.

Additionally, amendments in legislation that promote comprehensive political representation have empowered marginalized groups, including women and underprivileged communities. Reservation quotas for women in local governance institutions and the allocation of positions for Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) in parliamentary and state assemblies have facilitated their meaningful involvement in the decision-making process.

This inclusive approach has diversified the political landscape, amplifying the voices of historically marginalized communities and ensuring the representation of their perspectives and interests in the governance of the nation.

Despite these positive effects, challenges persist, demanding continual efforts to fortify the electoral framework. Ensuring the effective implementation of electoral regulations and enhancing enforcement mechanisms are critical in preventing electoral malpractices and preserving the integrity of the electoral process. Moreover, fostering political awareness and literacy among citizens is essential for promoting informed and responsible participation, thereby fostering a culture of active and vigilant citizenship.

 The impact of electoral reforms in India has been instrumental in safeguarding the implementation of unbiased and equitable elections, fostering transparency, and promoting inclusivity within the democratic system. Through the utilization of technological advancements, the regulation of campaign finances, and the promotion of comprehensive representation, India’s electoral reforms have significantly contributed to the development of a robust democratic culture rooted in equity, transparency, and accountability.

Continual endeavors to address prevailing challenges and uphold the integrity of the electoral process are imperative in nurturing a flourishing democratic ecosystem that reflects the aspirations and interests of all segments of Indian society.


Electoral reforms have had a profound impact on how political parties operate in India, leading to significant changes in the country’s political scene. The introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) has streamlined the voting process, reducing fraudulent activities and prompting political parties to focus on effective campaigning strategies and principles, rather than relying on traditional manipulative methods. Similarly, the implementation of the Anti-Defection Law in 1985 has encouraged party discipline, minimizing abrupt shifts in party loyalty and fostering more united party structures.

Ongoing discussions about state funding of elections have the potential to decrease the influence of financial power in politics, creating a fairer environment for smaller or less wealthy political parties and thereby diversifying the political landscape. Additionally, the initiation of the Model Code of Conduct (MCC) has instilled a sense of accountability, preventing political parties from engaging in unfair practices and compelling them to prioritize issues and development during their campaigns.

Efforts to eliminate criminal activities from politics have gained momentum, with proposed stricter laws aimed at preventing individuals with criminal backgrounds from participating in elections. This has pushed political parties to nominate trustworthy candidates, enhancing their overall reputation and credibility among the public. The implementation of the Right to Information (RTI) Act has played a vital role in ensuring transparency and accountability within political parties, thus reinforcing the integrity of the political process.

The reservation for women in local government has encouraged more active involvement of women in politics, compelling political parties to include policies and manifestos that cater to women’s needs, thus promoting a more comprehensive and diverse political agenda. Despite these positive effects, challenges remain, as political parties often find ways to evade these reforms. The success of these reforms greatly depends on their enforcement and proper execution, necessitating ongoing evaluation and enhancement of existing mechanisms to uphold the integrity and efficacy of electoral processes.

 The influence of electoral reforms on the operations of political parties in India has been substantial, reshaping the political landscape and fostering transparency, inclusivity, and accountability. These reforms have accelerated the evolution of a more responsible, disciplined, and democratic political culture, reinforcing the foundations of India’s vibrant democracy.

However, consistent efforts and a strong commitment to the implementation of these reforms are necessary to ensure that political parties uphold democratic values and serve the best interests of the nation and its citizens.[3]


Electoral reforms in India have played a vital role in regulating campaign financing, aiming to ensure transparency, fairness, and accountability in the electoral process. These reforms have introduced various measures to monitor and control the flow of funds during election campaigns, thus fostering a more equitable and democratic electoral landscape.

One of the key roles of these reforms has been to stress the importance of transparency and disclosure in campaign financing. Political parties and candidates are now obligated to reveal their funding sources and expenditures, allowing the public to have a clear understanding of the financial aspects of election campaigns. This disclosure mechanism serves as a crucial tool in holding political entities accountable and in fostering trust among voters.

Moreover, these reforms have set limits on the maximum amount of money that can be spent by political parties and candidates during the electoral process, aiming to create a level playing field for all participants and prevent the dominance of well-funded candidates or parties. By establishing these financial boundaries, the reforms aim to ensure that the electoral competition is based on merit and ideas rather than financial advantages.

To prevent the influence of external or vested interests on the electoral process, the reforms have introduced mechanisms for scrutinizing the donations received by political parties, with strict restrictions on accepting donations from foreign sources, government entities, and certain types of organizations. Scrutiny of donations serves as a safeguard against the potential distortion of the electoral process by external influences, preserving the integrity of the democratic system.

Additionally, the promotion of electronic payment methods for political donations has reduced cash transactions in campaign financing, making the flow of funds more traceable and accountable. This move has enhanced the transparency and credibility of financial transactions associated with election campaigns, reducing the likelihood of undisclosed contributions and under-the-table deals.

Furthermore, electoral reforms have established monitoring mechanisms to ensure compliance with the rules and regulations related to campaign financing, overseen by independent regulatory bodies. These mechanisms act as a deterrent to potential malpractices and ensure the enforcement of campaign finance regulations.

Some reforms have introduced the concept of public funding for political parties, aiming to reduce the dependence on private donations and minimize the potential influence of wealthy donors on the political process. Public funding promotes the participation of smaller parties and candidates with limited financial resources, fostering a more diverse and inclusive political landscape.

In cases of non-compliance with campaign financing regulations, electoral reforms have implemented punitive measures to discourage illegal practices. Penalties and legal consequences are imposed on those who violate the established guidelines, emphasizing the importance of ethical financial practices during election campaigns. These punitive measures serve as a strong deterrent against any attempts to manipulate the electoral process through illicit financial means.

In summary, the role of electoral reforms in India in regulating campaign financing is crucial, as these reforms have significantly contributed to promoting transparency, fairness, and accountability in the electoral process. Continuous implementation, monitoring, and assessment of these reforms are essential to uphold the integrity of the electoral process and maintain the principles of a strong and healthy democratic system.[4]  [5]


The introduction of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) and other technological innovations has had a significant impact on the realm of Indian politics, playing a crucial role in ensuring effective, transparent, and equitable electoral processes. The significance of EVMs and technology in Indian politics can be observed from several important perspectives.

Firstly, the use of EVMs has led to improved efficiency and accuracy, replacing traditional paper ballot systems and enabling faster and more precise vote counting. This has minimized the possibility of human error and expedited the declaration of election results, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the entire electoral process.

Furthermore, the adoption of EVMs has significantly reduced the scope for electoral malpractices, including activities like booth capturing and tampering of ballot boxes. The advanced security features and encryption protocols of EVMs have bolstered the credibility and integrity of the electoral system, promoting a fair and transparent democratic process.

Moreover, the utilization of technology has resulted in cost savings, eliminating the need for printing ballot papers and transporting them to various polling stations. This cost-effectiveness has allowed resources to be allocated to other crucial areas of the electoral process, thereby optimizing overall election management.

Additionally, technological advancements have facilitated the development of robust voter registration systems, leading to the creation of accurate voter lists and efficient management of electoral rolls. This has reduced the potential for voter fraud and facilitated more inclusive and accessible electoral participation for all eligible citizens.

Furthermore, technological progress has made it possible to explore remote voting mechanisms, providing greater participation in the electoral process, especially for individuals who are unable to visit polling stations. This has promoted a more inclusive and participatory democracy, enabling citizens from diverse backgrounds to conveniently exercise their voting rights.

The integration of technology has also enabled political parties to develop data-driven strategies and targeted campaigns, leading to more efficient and focused outreach to voters. Advanced data analytics and digital tools have enhanced the understanding of voter behavior and preferences, thereby improving the effectiveness of political communication and engagement.

Lastly, the use of technology has facilitated real-time monitoring and oversight during elections, ensuring greater transparency and accountability. Through digital surveillance and monitoring tools, electoral authorities can closely supervise the voting process, deterring potential irregularities and safeguarding the integrity of the electoral proceedings.

The integration of EVMs and technology in Indian politics has not only modernized the electoral process but has also strengthened confidence among citizens in the fairness and credibility of the electoral system, reinforcing the principles of democracy and governance. However, continuous advancements and the implementation of robust cybersecurity measures are necessary to ensure the resilience and security of these technological systems, thus safeguarding the integrity of the electoral process in the long term.


Electoral reforms in India have played a crucial role in effectively addressing various challenges within the electoral system. These reforms have targeted issues such as electoral malpractices, lack of transparency, inclusivity, voter participation, political financing, and deterrence of electoral offenses.

The implementation of Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) has notably reduced electoral malpractices like booth capturing and ballot rigging, ensuring a more transparent and equitable electoral process. Moreover, the requirement for political parties to disclose their funding sources and election expenditure has enhanced accountability and minimized the influence of unaccounted funds in the political realm.

The empowerment of the Election Commission through electoral reforms has led to more effective monitoring and enforcement of electoral rules, creating a fairer environment for political competition. Furthermore, the reservation of seats for marginalized communities and women in elections has promoted a more diverse and representative political landscape.

Efforts to improve voter participation through better registration processes and accessible voting options have resulted in increased engagement in the democratic process. Meanwhile, measures to regulate political financing have worked towards creating a more level playing field for candidates and parties, deterring undue financial influence in elections.

Additionally, the implementation of stringent laws and penalties has discouraged various forms of electoral offenses, safeguarding the integrity of the electoral system. However, challenges persist in ensuring the effective implementation and adherence to these reforms, as well as in adapting to the evolving technological landscape of the electoral process.

Continuous assessment and refinement of electoral reforms, along with increased public awareness and participation, are critical for sustaining a strong and transparent democratic framework in India. These ongoing efforts will contribute to strengthening the democratic process and addressing electoral challenges for the benefit of the nation and its citizens.


India, being the largest democracy globally, has made notable progress in its electoral procedures since gaining independence in 1947. However, it faces various persistent obstacles in achieving comprehensive reforms. These challenges are rooted in socio-political, economic, and technological factors and obstruct the effective functioning of the Indian electoral system.

One of the foremost hurdles is the issue of financial influence and the role of unaccounted money in elections. Unregulated spending during electoral campaigns often leads to corruption and the sway of vested interests, undermining the democratic principles of fair representation. Additionally, the connection between politicians and businesses fosters an environment where illicit funds can flow into the electoral process, compromising its integrity.

Furthermore, the prevalence of identity-based politics remains a crucial challenge. Many political parties exploit religious, caste, and regional identities to secure votes, leading to divisive campaigns. This not only hampers the development of a unified national identity but also perpetuates social and communal tensions, thus undermining the country’s democratic fabric.

Another significant issue is the necessity for reforms that enhance the representation of marginalized groups. Despite constitutional provisions for reserved seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, their meaningful participation in the electoral process is limited. Ensuring their effective participation and representation poses a significant challenge in India’s democratic landscape.

Moreover, the increasing influence of technology and the digital realm presents its own set of challenges. With the rapid growth of social media and digital platforms, there is a heightened risk of misinformation, fake news, and propaganda campaigns that can significantly sway public opinion. Balancing the regulation of digital campaigning and countering online misinformation without infringing on the right to freedom of expression is a delicate task that needs to be addressed through robust electoral reforms.

The issue of electoral malpractices such as booth capturing, bogus voting, and voter intimidation continues to persist in various parts of the country. Despite the introduction of electronic voting machines (EVMs) to ensure fair and transparent elections, concerns about their security and reliability persist, leading to a lack of trust in the electoral process.

Addressing these challenges necessitates comprehensive electoral reforms that prioritize transparency, accountability, and inclusivity. Initiatives such as the implementation of stringent campaign finance regulations, the promotion of a more issue-based political discourse, and the strengthening of institutional mechanisms for electoral oversight are critical steps in this direction. Moreover, fostering political will and public awareness to support these reforms is essential for safeguarding the integrity and credibility of India’s democratic process. By effectively tackling these challenges, India can fortify its democratic foundation and ensure a more equitable and representative electoral system for its citizens.[6]


Implementing changes in electoral processes encounters various obstacles that demand careful consideration and strategic planning. These obstacles arise from political, social, economic, and technological factors, often creating difficulties in executing necessary modifications. Key challenges in implementing electoral reforms include:

1. Resistance from Political Stakeholders: Reforms may face opposition from political parties and leaders reluctant to alter the existing power dynamics that could affect their interests.

2. Complex Legislative Processes: The introduction and approval of electoral reforms through legislative bodies can be a protracted and intricate process, subject to negotiations and conflicting interests among different political factions.

3. Socio-Economic Disparities: Addressing unequal access to resources and education is crucial for ensuring equal participation in the electoral process, particularly in regions with socio-economic disparities.

4. Technological and Infrastructural Limitations: Limited access to technology and insufficient infrastructure in some regions, particularly rural areas, can hinder the implementation.

5. Lack of Public Awareness and Participation: Lack of public understanding and participation can impede the effective implementation of reforms, emphasizing the need for education and outreach campaigns to build public support.

6. Regulatory and Legal Challenges: Overcoming regulatory hurdles and ensuring that the legal framework aligns with proposed reforms and constitutional provisions requires collaboration between various stakeholders, including legal experts and electoral authorities.

7. Institutional Capacity and Political Will: Strengthening the independence and capacity of electoral bodies is crucial, necessitating adequate resources and a strong commitment from political leaders to enforce reforms effectively.

8. International and Regional Dynamics: When electoral reforms are influenced by international or regional agreements, balancing national sovereignty with international obligations becomes a complex challenge, often influenced by geopolitical dynamics.

Overcoming these challenges demands a comprehensive approach, including stakeholder consultations, robust legislative frameworks, effective communication strategies, and a commitment to transparency and inclusivity in the electoral process. Building consensus among political actors, engaging civil society, and encouraging public participation are crucial elements for successfully implementing electoral reforms.[7]


In summary, the effects of electoral reforms in India can profoundly reshape the country’s democratic landscape, promoting transparency, inclusivity, and accountability in the electoral process. Overcoming challenges such as financial influence, identity-based politics, and technological advancements, comprehensive reforms have the potential to strengthen the fundamental principles of democracy and ensure a more equitable representation of diverse voices within the Indian political framework.

Moreover, these reforms can play a crucial role in curbing the impact of unaccounted finances and vested interests, safeguarding the democratic process from undue monetary influences and corrupt practices. By prioritizing issue-based politics over identity-driven campaigns, such changes can foster a more cohesive national identity, fostering social unity and coherence.

Furthermore, embracing technology while addressing its associated challenges can enhance the accessibility and credibility of the electoral system, securing the integrity and reliability of the voting mechanism. Through heightened public awareness and active participation, electoral reforms can empower marginalized communities, fostering a more comprehensive and fair political arena.

Ultimately, successful implementation and ongoing adaptation of these reforms can reinforce the core tenets of democracy, promoting values such as openness, equity, and the active involvement of the populace. This will pave the way for a more robust and dynamic democratic framework in India that caters to the diverse needs and aspirations of its people.


  1. “Electoral Reforms in India: Issues and Challenges” by M.P. Singh and Rekha Saxena.
  2. Electoral Reforms in India: Current Issues and Challenges” edited by S.K. Sharma
  3. Indian Government and Politics: A Comparative Perspective” by Bidyut chakrabarty

[1] “SECTION II: ELECTIONS AND ELECTORAL REFORMS IN INDIA.” The Indian Journal of Political Science, vol. 37, no. 2, 1976, pp. 121–24. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41854738.

[2] Ramesh, R. “HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES OF THE ELECTORAL REFORMS IN INDIA.” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, vol. 72, 2011, pp. 1325–36. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/44145743.  

[3] Rao, Alapati Rajeswara. “REFORMS IN INDIAN POLITICS AND PARTICULARLY IN THE ELECTIONS.” The Indian Journal of Political Science, vol. 76, no. 3, 2015, pp. 392–96. JSTOR, https://www.jstor.org/stable/26534853. .

[4] B. Venkatesh Kumar. “Funding of Elections: Case for Institutionalised Financing.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 34, no. 28, 1999, pp. 1884–88. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4408179.

[5] KONDEPATI, RAJENDRA. “Reforming the Campaign Finance Regime in India.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 46, no. 52, 2011, pp. 70–75. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41719991.  

[6] Kaur, Amandeep. “ISSUES OF REFORM IN ELECTORAL POLITICS OF INDIA: An Analytical.” The Indian Journal of Political Science, vol. 73, no. 1, 2012, pp. 167–74. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/41856573.

[7] Kumar, B. Venkatesh. “Critical Issues in Electoral Reforms.” The Indian Journal of Political Science, vol. 63, no. 1, 2002, pp. 73–88. JSTOR, http://www.jstor.org/stable/42743575.

The article is written by Ganda Venkata Jaya Chandra Reddy of Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University in co-authorship of Siripurapu Madan Kumar and Patenge Chathrapathi of Damodaram Sanjivayya National Law University.